Asthma (for more information see GINA)
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It is defined by the history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation.
COPD (for more information see GOLD)
is a common preventable and treatable disease, characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with enhanced chronic inflammatory responses in the airways and the lungs to noxious particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients.
Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO) (for more information see ACO)
Asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation with several features usually associated with asthma and several features usually associated with COPD. ACO is therefore identified by the features that it shares with both asthma and COPD.